The Premier Architect of Scotland comes to town
Updated: Dec 30, 2021
The Edinburgh-based Robert Rowand Anderson (1834 - 1921) was generally regarded as the pre-eminent man in Scottish architecture during the latter part of the 19th century, with a wide range of works to his credit throughout Scotland, of which a surprisingly high number - around one in seven - were in Fife. Among his very earliest works were three memorial tablets at Edinburgh Castle, all to people with Fife connections - Kirkcaldy of Grange (c1513-1572); The Earl of Moray (1285-1332); and Mary of Lorraine/Guise, (1515-60) the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. All three stone tablets were built into the existing castle walls, the first two externally and Mary’s on an inside wall. These came about due to the fact that at the same time as starting out on his own practice he was working for the civilian staff of the Royal Engineers - my own old National Service mob.
Historic Scotland believe, with fairly good reason, although this is disputed by his biographer, Professor Sam McKinstry, that he built the Central Chambers in the High Street, Kirkcaldy.
It certainly bears a distinct resemblance to several of his early works in Edinburgh, and was formerly the George Hotel. It is a bold hunky Gothic design with the date 1868 in the apex of the gable and with a pend entrance to the right of the ground floor leading to George Burn Wynd. The two storeys and attic above are symmetrical with four large arched windows to the first floor, four smaller windows to the second floor and at the attic storey there are just three; the central one within a large gable and overarched with a monogram which appears to read ‘JES’ in the apex. The other windows on this floor are within dormer gables and are arched, while the whole is topped with a pair of very muscular stone lozenge-shaped chimney stacks.
Following the 1872 Education (Scotland) Act the newly constituted Kirkcaldy School Board took over responsibility for the existing fifteen schools in the burgh serving a total of 2199 pupils. These included, in addition to the Burgh School and the Parish School of Abbotshall, such educational establishments as 'Mr Sherriff's; Mr Patterson's; Misses Black; Miss Russell's; and Miss Wilson’s,’
The new Board decided to build an East and a West School and purchased land in Maryhall Street and Milton Road, and as a result of Anderson’s success in designing Board Schools in Edinburgh he was invited to compete along with William Moffat (of Glasgow?), Pilkington & Bell of Edinburgh, Little & Paxton of Kirkcaldy and John Milne of St Andrews. For whatever reason the Kirkcaldy architects had refused to compete, and in May 1874 the designs were put on display in the Town House, and in the same month both schools were awarded to Anderson by the Board, but this was defeated by five votes to four and the east school was awarded to Milne (see Three Baronial Villas).
Anderson may have produced designs for Abbotshall School in Ramsay Road but this was built by Robert Little with the Infant department next door by William Williamson. He was certainly more successful with the West or Milton Road School.
This was a very much more austere design than Milne’s, described in John Gifford’s Buildings of Scotland, Fife, as ‘Beautifully simple Gothic. Gabled ends; gable in the centre kept down in height so as not to detract from the roof, whose steep pitch is emphasised by two small dormers and a tall flèche. Round chimney stacks on the flanks. Also by Anderson, and just as accomplished, the schoolmaster’s and janitor’s houses on l. and r.’ (He did not have a good word to say for Milne, and dismissed the East School in a half-dozen words:- ‘Gothic, with a slate-roofed tower.’)
Despite Gifford’s best efforts this is not a building to warm to and it certainly does not extend a friendly welcome to youngsters. The roof seems excessively high as indeed are the chimney stacks at either end, and the headmasters house (now privately owned) is equally forbidding with something of the appearance of a giant sentry-box. The janitors house was less grim but has now been largely overwhelmed with ivy.
Building of both began in 1875 and underground coal workings at Milton Road meant that arched foundations were employed. The tenders for this school amounting to £5,048 8s 2d, were as follows:
Mason - Alexander Fraser, Pathhead. £2,796 10s 0dJoiner - Wm Little & Sons, Kirkcaldy. £1,488 8s 6d
Plasterer - Alex McPherson, St Andrews. £179 0s 0d
Plumber - Alex Torrance, Kirkcaldy. £289 0s 0d
Slater - Wm Muir, Kirkcaldy. £295 9s 8d
Both schools were built of local stone from the Deu and Dubbie quarries, and completed the following year, with the West School opening on 4th September 1876 for 500 pupils. Its workmanship was of such high quality that the finish became the local standard for building specifications. It was also to become the first school of the future Prime Minister, Gordon Brown.
In 1875 he designed a much more humble work locally - the Session House for St Drostan’s Church at Markinch, although not actually built until 1897. This incorporated remnants of early medieval work including the niche which housed the collection plate. The takings proved so poor that the Kirk-Session were obliged to post a member behind the window to ensure that contributions were actually being made. Around the same time his design for St Brycedale Free Church, Kirkcaldy was unsuccessful, as was his entry for the St Margaret of Scotland Episcopal Church in Leven - and although his Public School and Schoolhouse at Leslie West did get built it no longer exists.
However, back in Kirkcaldy, his St Margaret’s in East Fergus Place was built as a villa for Mr Andrew Lockhart of N Lockhart & Sons, Bennochy Works. According to The Builder it was ‘a Gothic residence, homely and unpretentious,’ and is certainly much more likeable than the chilly Gothic of Milton Road School.
Mrs Lockhart lived there until 1935 after which it was sold to Kirkcaldy Town Council and later linked with Tower Villa, at 15 Wemyssfield which dates from 1866. The new combined buildings were converted to offices in 1919, extended in 1923 and the two villas were joined in 1938.
St Margaret’s House is of squared rock-faced rubble with polished ashlar dressings and has his characteristic steep roof pitch and very lofty, and largely freestanding, chimney stacks. The more overtly Gothic elements are the first floor windows to the left hand gable wall and the doorway opening in the lean-to porch attached to this gable. The gable was given a rather surprised look by two chunky relieving arches over small windows above the paired main ground floor windows.
The other advanced gable to the right is almost entirely blank save for a small first floor window and a massive corbelled chimney stack in the centre. He did like to contrast intricately detailed surfaces with large areas of blank walls. The interior has a number of attractive details including a particularly fine scale and platt staircase in the entrance hall. The small windows with big ‘eyebrows’ which look insignificant on the outside are in what is now the Waiting Room and have brightly coloured floral stained glass. There are also coloured glass windows to the stairwell and throughout. The whole complex is now known as New Volunteer House and as well as the various voluntary organisations it houses the estimable K107fm radio station. Despite the adaptation to offices the individual houses still retain a reasonable amount of original features.
Around the same time he built a very fine pair of villas in Milton Road, ‘West Holme’ at No 74 - and ‘Fairview’ at No 76. These were built for John Hogarth, a miller and corn merchant of West Mills who had purchased the ground from Munro Ferguson of Raith in 1878. The house to the right of the pair was called Fairview (and it certainly has that!) and was built to a higher specification internally for himself and his third wife, Christian Fair, while West Holme, to the left (and east), and with a simpler interior, was for his daughter. It was sold for £1000 in 1888 and by 1957 was occupied by an architectural practice. After a spell with offices on the ground floor and a dwelling above it is now wholly residential.
These very substantial villas are diagonally across the road from the handsome block at 69-81 Milton Road built by JD Swanston in 1898 (see previous article of July 15th) but are less visible from the road due to trees in their front gardens. They are a very striking mirrored pair with steeply pitched gables and lean-to slated porches with the gables dramatically corbelled out and framed with bold semi-circular white-painted timber. At the rear of the houses this timber work within the gables is revealed as fronting balconies to the attic storey, albeit rather narrow, but particularly attractive and opening to excellent views to the south across the Forth.
Internally the coloured sash and case window at the landing of the staircase is the finest of the numerous original features of Fairview, including panelling and fireplaces etc., throughout. A joiner who came to do work for the present owners really enthused about what he called the “quirky features” of the house, and particularly a timber draught-excluder which still rises automatically and gracefully to clear the threshold.
1866 was a good year for Anderson when he secured two commissions for Episcopal churches in quick succession - St Andrews Church, St Andrews in October and St James the Great in Cupar in December.
The new St Andrew’s Church, in Queen's Terrace, opened three years later on 8th April, though it was not consecrated until 1877. It was built to replace the former St Andrew's Church in North Street, built just to the east of St Salvator’s Chapel by the leading Edinburgh architect William Burn. Its foundation stone had been laid with great Masonic pomp in 1824 and the church opened just over a year later. The total cost was £1486. 17s 8p and in 1853 an extension was required necessitating a new facade being added by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott - ‘a very rich Gothic structure, finer than any modern building in our city,’ according to the Fife Herald. However, it again become outgrown by the congregation, and in 1870 was put up for sale for £130, as the congregation decided to move to new premises in Queen’s Terrace.
Meanwhile, around and beyond the East Neuk, at Buckhaven, the Elders of the Free Church of Scotland were gathering money to construct a church in order to address the 'spiritual destitution' of the town, and evangelise the 'careless and the non-church-going.' There was only a United Presbyterian Church in the Links area, while members of the Free or Established Churches had to travel either to Leven or to East Wemyss to worship. The congregation of 250 were meeting in an old school, and had collected £236 with another £300 promised by subscribers. Plans were therefore prepared for a church building to seat 300 and with provision for a gallery to be added later.
Learning of the sale they went along to St Andrews, inspected the church, liked it, and promptly bought it! It was then carefully dismantled slate-by-slate and stone-by-stone, with each stone being marked and the whole lot transported by carrier to the harbour and put on Thomas Walker's boat The Sea King, and ferried round to Buckhaven harbour, It was then unloaded and carted up the steep West High Street to the site in Church Street, where it was re-erected as Buckhaven Free Church.
At that time the nearest trunk road was the Standing Stanes Road, a mile away over rough ground, and thus making the sea voyage a no-brainer. The church was reconstructed next door to where a new United Presbyterian Church, St David's, had been built a year earlier. It was re-dedicated in 1872, and in 1879 the great storm which brought down the Tay Bridge also blew down the cross from the apex of the front gable. This was replaced with an ornamental pinnacle and the church was extended sideways in 1885 in order to provide greater seating capacity, but in 1989 it was converted into a theatre.
Anderson's St Andrews church design had been selected 'by the eminent architect Mr. Street' - George Edmund Street, the architect of the Law Courts in the Strand in London, in preference to a design by the experienced local man John Milne, and despite Anderson's relative youth - he was then just into his thirties.
It was built in the Gothic Revival style with a Byzantine Revival style interior, with the roof being the main feature both externally and internally, but it was not particularly well received by the St Andrews public and press. The Citizen wrote that:-
'The opening of the new Episcopal Church took place on Thursday. The new church is a gothic structure. It has a plain arched roof of painted oak and stone pillars partly of red sandstone.
The passages are laid with brick which gives the building rather a cold appearance almost bordering on discomfort. The great display of ornamentation is in the chancel and round the altar where the floor is laid with a finer texture of fancy bricks. The altar itself is beautifully carved. The acoustic properties of the church seem very good. Beyond this there is no remarkable feature in the building.’
The Fife Herald were not quite so enthusiastic, and, according to AKH Boyd, in his book Twenty-five Years of St Andrews - ‘an educated man, claiming to belong to the Episcopalian Communion, asked anxiously of me what was meant by the chancel of a church. And another intelligent man said to me that they had a surpliced choir of men and boys; all that was now needed was a number of ballet girls to dance.'
However, the church was built to accommodate growth and grow it did as the town and congregation expanded. The original plain pine-wood pews were replaced as funds allowed and the debt was cleared by the congregation in just eight years through the sale of the old church and parsonage for a total of £1311 as well as bazaars and sales of work, donations, special collections etc. This cleared the way for the church to be dedicated on St Andrew's Day 1877, and the congregation then set out to raise the money for the planned, but by then unbuilt, tower and spire, and the internal enrichment of the church. Further bazaars, donations, etc., brought in enough money to build the tower which by 1892 reached a height of more than eighty feet. Like the rest of the church it was built of six hundred tons of stone from the same quarry at Strathkinness from which the stone for the rest of the church came. It was decided not to proceed with a spire at that time, but that the money would be better spent on a church hall. The interior was also enriched with carvings of the stonework, particularly the capitals of the pillars, designed by the architect and paid for by individual members of the church. (More on these later). One money-raising venture in April 1870 was an organ recital with admission by ticket only - 'to prevent the church being filled by a disorderly rable' (sic) according to the vestry minutes.
Unfortunately by the late 1930s the site became unable to support the weight of the tower and it began to shed plaster internally and to develop cracks as it began leaning further and further towards the Kinnessburn, and threatening to crack the chancel arch. The original architectural firm, now Rowand Anderson and Balfour Paul, were consulted and advice was sought from the professor of geology and others. The tower, at the south-east corner of the church was dismantled down to the level of the eaves of the nave and given a slated hipped roof in 1938 at a cost of £1079; a sum met mainly as a response to a thousand letters of appeal and a notice in the St Leonard's School Gazette.
A handbook produced by the church in. 1994 shows on the cover the tower around 1930 shortly before it was removed, and, also illustrates the original proposal complete with spire. Interestingly, the church, like St Brycedale’s, was also referred, to albeit briefly - as a ‘Cathedral.’
It was decided in 1822 that a church of a more suitable size for the growing Episcopal congregation in Cupar should be built. A large sum of money was raised and an octagonal church was built by the Coaltown of Balgonie mason Robert Hutchison to the design of the eminent Edinburgh architect William Burn, at a cost of £1,678 11s 7d, including all fittings. Unfortunately it was on the constricted site of the present church and though it remained in use until 1866 it was then demolished to make way for the present building. Mind you the new church was only able to accommodate 60 or 70 additional people.
This was also a bit tough on Burn, who died in 1870, to have had not just one but two churches removed and replaced by the up and coming Anderson.
The Fife Herald reported the opening of the new church on December 22 1867 as follows:-
'On Sunday morning last, the new Episcopal Chapel, which has been in course of erection during the last seven or eight months in Cupar, was formally opened by Bishop Wordsworth [of St Andrews].
The chapel which has been supplanted by this new edifice stood on the same site, in St Catherine or the New Street, the front of which to the street was classic, the back wall Gothic, and the intermediate building a compromise between the two - the general plan of the church being an octagon, with a lath and plaster dome and skylight. The Vestry, determined to remodel the building so as to bring it into harmony with the improved taste of the present day, consulted Mr Anderson, Architect, Edinburgh, who has succeeded in transforming it into a thoroughly effective ecclesiastical edifice.
The space occupied by the old church has been divided transversely into a nave and aisle, and a handsome chancel has been erected on a vacant piece of ground at the back, a vestry and a place for the organ having been formed on one side by a continuation of the aisle. The nave measures 51 feet by 21 feet 6 inches [15.54m x 6.6m] and is divided into three bays by moulded stone semi-circular arches and pillars with floriated capitals. The aisle is 10 feet [3.04m] wide. The nave is lighted by a large 5-lighted pointed window and a clerestory of spherical triangle windows in couples. The choir is fitted up with stalls, and the whole of the floor is laid with encaustic tiles, and the passages of the nave and aisles with terrometallic tiles. The church will accommodate 190 seated in open benches exclusive of the choir. The architect, as we have already indicated, is R Anderson, Esq, Edinburgh, and the general contract has been carried out by Mr R Adam, Cupar, Fife.'
This new church was said to have just cost £2000, and during the construction period the congregation worshipped at the former UP Church at Burnside whose congregation had just moved into their own new church (now the Baptist Church) in Bonnygate, designed by Peddie and Kinnear. St James's was barely finished in time for the opening but they managed it and there was a large attendance with many from other denominations as well to form a full house for the afternoon service.
The pulpit was designed by Anderson and executed by Whytock, Reid, and Co. of Edinburgh, and dates from 1901, while the richly carved altar table, rood screen and hanging rood cross, as well as the reredos and wall panelling were designed by RS Lorimer between c1917 and 1929.
By the mid-1870s he was one of the six architects chosen to compete for Edinburgh University’s Graduation Hall (McEwan Hall) and medical building. His success with that will have helped him become elected as an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy and soon after that he was chosen as architect for the Caledonian Railway Central Station in Glasgow. This meant moving to larger premises and employing more staff, and he was then selected to do the rebuild, after a fire, of Mount Stuart for the fabulously wealthy Marquess of Bute, and he was also responsible for the imposing red sandstone National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh.
As Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1877 was approaching Tennyson, the Poet Laureate, had declared that ‘You, the Patriot Architect, / You that shape for Eternity, / Raise a stately memorial, / Make it regally gorgeous, / Some Imperial Institute / Rich in symbol and ornament / Which may speak to the centuries.. . .’
A suitable site was selected for this Imperial Institute between the Albert Hall and the Natural History Museum and Anderson was one of six prominent architects invited to compete. His entry was in ‘Wrenaissance’ style and carefully planned with a large exhibition court flanked by two generous museum spaces and contained reading rooms, libraries, laboratories, restaurants, and lecture theatres. Despite his designs being ‘greatly admired, especially by H.R.H.’ he was not successful.
However, though it may not have been much consolation, he did build the pleasant little Queen’s Hall in the planned village of Charlestown, by Limekilns. This was gifted by the Dowager Countess of Elgin and is situated right on the boundary between the village and the Broomhall Estate, not far from the fabulous Gellet Rock. It had a hall, a reading room, and a library (until 1980) along with a bowling green and was in a ‘Scots Jacobean’ style with crow-steps and with harling - which was then beginning to come back into favour with the younger generation of progressive architects like Lorimer and Mackintosh.
He also carried out alterations to the 15th century Pitfirrane Castle (now Dunfermline Golf Club) including a new entrance door, hood mould, and armorial panel with the date 1888. He also made various alterations to Broomhall, the home of the Earl of Elgin, as well as to Dunfermline Abbey and Culross Abbey Church, and designed the pulpit for St Salvator’s Chapel in St Andrews, and the oak pulpit over the grave of Robert the Bruce in Dunfermline Abbey in 1890.
Two more of his churches in Fife are both in Dunfermline by the East Port. One is the mighty St Margaret’s Memorial RC Church and the other was Holy Trinity Episcopal Church tucked away rather inconspicuously amid the cluster of St Margaret’s across the road; the Carnegie Hall behind; and the looming bulk of Viewfield Baptist Church, designed by Peter Henderson, the architect of the very impressive and equally lofty Lundin Links Hotel.
The previous Trinity Episcopal Chapel opened in 1842 behind the old Dunfermline High School, in Queen Anne Place/Bath Street - later Pilmuir Street. In 1891 it was bought by the Evangelical Union Church for £1500 and galleries were inserted on three sides by Anderson to bring the seating up to 200, and was then used by the Congregational Church, before becoming a carpet warehouse, and was finally demolished for the town centre redevelopment.
He had also drawn up the plans for the new Holy Trinity Church at the junction of East Port and Viewfield Terrace, in his late Gothic style, and at an estimated cost of £2300. A gift of the site from the weaving manufacturer, Mr Erskine Beveridge as well as other donations meant that the new church could be consecrated in September 1891 free of debt. The church contains memorials to many of the eminent people of the area, and the hall was also designed by Anderson in the same style and completed in 1898. An organ by C&J Hamilton of Edinburgh was donated by the Dowager Countess of Elgin and Lady Louisa Bruce in 1894. The solid oak carved, gilded and painted reredos was designed by Anderson and executed by Whytock & Reid in 1904.
One of Anderson's regular collaborators was the stained glass artist Charles Eamer Kempe (1837-1907), a major figure of Victorian decorative art. The Kempe studio, the largest stained glass studio in Britain with over 50 men by the late 1890s, produced windows for Anderson at Dunblane Cathedral; Govan Old Parish Church - known as 'the people's cathedral;' the lofty St John's Church in Alloa, described at the time as the 'most elegant place of worship in the County;' as well as at Forfar and Helensburgh, but Holy Trinity is the only one of Anderson's churches in Fife to have a Kempe window, the four-light window depicting the Ascension, and the Supper at Emmaus, of 1906, with his signature wheatsheaf logo - just visible at the extreme left above the lower horizontal glazing bar. The church is category B-Listed and, like St James in Cupar it has a friendly homely feel to it, in contrast to the less intimate feel of St Andrews, St Andrews, and St Margaret’s Dunfermline.
The corner-stone of St Margaret’s, Dunfermline's own saint, had been laid on her Saints Day, 16 November 1894. The building was erected by the Roman Catholics of Scotland to Anderson’s design in a simple twelfth-century transitional style, 'as a noble monument in honour of Scotland's glorious Queen and Patroness on the occasion of the eighth centenary of her death.'
He provided the writer A H Miller with a perspective engraving showing the original design for the church along with a description of the proposed building for the 1895 book Fife, Pictorial and Historical. Vol II. This shows that the church was originally intended to be much more ambitious with a crossing tower, transepts, chancel and pinnacled buttresses as well as a huge circular steeple, all at a total estimated cost of £30,000. However these were omitted when the money could not be raised. The nave and aisle opened for worship on the 17th of June 1896, and the chancel and west vestry/sacristy were added in 1934-36 with the reredos added in 1939-40 by Reginald Fairlie. A circular stained glass window was installed in the south porch gable as part of the 'Margaret 900' Celebrations to mark the 900th anniversary of her birth in 1993, and to mark the centenary of the church two stained glass windows designed by Douglas Hogg, depicting St Andrew and St David, were installed on St Margaret's Day. The cost of over £100,000 was partly met by a grant of 75% from the Lottery Programme.
The church is orientated N/S while Holy Trinity is E/W, and as built has a surprisingly plain porch filling most of the southern end - (even plainer before the circular window was installed in 1983) and with a very modest round-arched door, as compared his planned ‘deeply recessed archway 24 feet 6 inches [7.47m] square, with groined roof in stonework, and niches for statuary. The arch opening is designed to be 25 feet [7.62m] high by 15 feet [4.57m] wide, richly decorated with clustered pillars.’
He had already been thwarted a couple of times in his attempts to build a steeple similar to the 11th century Celtic round tower at Brechin Cathedral, which he had sketched in the 1870s. A smaller version can be seen at PM Chalmers’ St Leonards Church of 1903-4 in Brucefield Avenue, but Anderson’s was to be much loftier and frankly weirder. He proposed that:- ‘A circular tower at the south end of the building will be 174 feet (53.1m) high, and will fill the recess between the nave and the porch. This tower is to be 28 feet 6 inches [8.69m] in diameter, tapering towards the top, and constructed in three stages. The lower part will be used as a baptistry, with a row of handsome windows terminate with symbolical figures. For 105 feet [32m] the tower will be plain, the first stage being completed with a sculptured frieze. The upper part will be arcaded in two stages, with belfry openings, and the whole will be completed with a conical roof.’
This presentation perspective illustration also shows that the proposed rather, stumpy, crossing tower was no great loss. Had it been built as originally envisaged it would certainly have made quite a statement at the eastern entry to the town centre.
His work was quite variable in quality with his competition entry for St Brycedale being described, even by his biographer, as ‘a mediocre competition design . . .’ while his McEwan Hall, and Mount Stuart, etc are quite stunning.
He was consistent in his attempts to raise the status of architects and was extremely influential in the founding, in 1917, of the Institute of Scottish Architects, later renamed the Incorporation of Architects in Scotland in 1922, and eventually, in 1929, the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. His office was very much a teaching practice with many significant figures passing through, including Sir Robert Lorimer and Frank Deas for example, and he worked hard to raise the standards and the status of the profession. In 1884 Edinburgh University awarded him the degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) - after which he was generally known as Doctor Anderson, and also began to use his middle name a lot more. He was always rather defensive and became more irascible as he got older and even acquired the nickname ‘Ruin Anderson’ as a result of one particularly unfortunate cost overrun. However, although he obtained less work - mainly on account of his age - he did accumulate honours including a Knighthood in 1902 for his work done at Balmoral, and the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture in 1916.
He moved his practice to 16 Rutland Square in Edinburgh in 1891 and bought the house next door to live in during the week. Sadly his only daughter had died of typhoid at he age of eight. and so he left both houses along with other properties and estate to the Incorporation on his death. It was decided that as a token of the great esteem in which he was held by the Institute a bust should be commissioned. Although he was now 87 and had been in poor health for some time, and had to cancel or abandon some sittings the sculptor, Pittendreigh McGillivray, was able to obtain the sitter’s definite approval for the bust in clay, just days before his death. This fine bust is now in a glass case in the foyer of the Incorporation and I had hoped to get a photograph to round off this article, but too many reflections meant that I was unable to obtain a satisfactory picture.
However. . . .
In 1879 Anderson had been asked to prepare designs for carving foliage etc., on to the capitals of the columns in St Andrews, St Andrews and some of the other stonework in the church, and as a result we now have a pair of carvings at the opening to the sacristy from the choir, representing Anderson and his wife Mary. These may well have only recently been rediscovered and identified as I was taken directly, and entirely spontaneously, to them when revisiting the church for this article.
The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Architects
The British Listed Buildings website
St Andrews, St Andrews by John Thomson, Hutton Press, Tayport 1994
Rowand Anderson, The Premier Architect of Scotland by Sam McInstry EUP 1991